Microbiology and Microbial World
Biography: Dr.Anselmo J. Otero-Gonzalez, Microbiologist, Havana University, 1978, PhD, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana, 1987, Doctor in Science, Havana University, 2008, now is SeniorResearcher, Antimicrobial Peptide lab,
Faculty of Biology, Havana University, Cuba and president of National Board for PhD examination in Cuba.He is professor of Cell Engineering and Immunology. 1981: awarded with a fellowship for attending the Uppsala Separation School, Biomedical Centre University of Uppsala, Sweden. 1983: doctoral stay at the Department of Genetics, Pennsylvania University, Philadelphia, USA for monoclonal antibody generation. 1991: post-doctoral stay regarding Cell banking at the European Collection of Animal Cell Cultures, Porton Down, Salisbury. 1992: fellowship for a research project (AIDS-HIV vaccine), Swedish Centre of Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden. 2000: awarded with a postdoctoral fellowship, David Rockefeller Centreof Latin-American Studies, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, USA. 2011-12: post-doctoral stay at Harvard Medical School for characterizing the antifungal peptide Cm-p5. He also has(2008-present) collaboration with the Bioorganic Department, Leibniz Institute for Plant Biochemistry, Halle (Saale), Germany regarding antimicrobial peptide isolation, evaluation and characterization. Dr. Otero has more that 90 scientific articles in recognized journals and more that 145 abstract and presentations in scientific events.
Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides form part of the first line of defence against pathogens for many organisms. Current treatments for fungal infections are limited by drug toxicity and pathogen resistance. Cm-p5 (SRSELIVHQRLF), a peptide derived from the marine mollusc Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) has a significantly increased fungistatic activity against pathogenic Candida albicans, exhibiting low toxic effects against a cultured mammalian cell line. Cm-p5 as characterized by Polarimetry of Circular Dichroism and Spectroscopy of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The antimicrobial activity of different types of nanoparticles has been previously demonstrated. Specifically, magnetic nanoparticles have been widely studied in biomedicine due to their physicochemical properties. The citric acid-modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles used in this study were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of approximately 5 nm diameter. These nanoparticles were able to inhibit Candida albicans growth in vitro. However, the nanoparticles were not capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli or Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal peptide Cm-p5 was conjugated to the modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the conjugated nanoparticles was higher than their bulk counterparts. This conjugate proved to be nontoxic to a macrophage cell line at concentrations that showed antimicrobial activity.
Biography: Xiaoyu Zhang is currently a Professor in the College of Life Science & Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan City of Hubei province, PR China. As the principle investigator in the Institute of Microbiotechnology of Environment & Resource, he focused on the research of biodegradation and bioconversion of lignocellulose and xenobiotics by white-rot fungi and their metabolic product for the application of bioremediation, biorefinery and functional food development.
Abstract: Renewable energy production and environmental protection are the focus of the current global research. This report mainly described our research progress on biodegradation and bioconversion of biomass and xenobiotics by basidiomycetes in order to provide a study idea of biofuel, biorefinery and environmental protection. More than 400 strains of basidiomycetes were obtained, purified and identified from typical habitat resources, and biodegradation model and heterogeneity of lignocelluloses were also studied. From these stains, Echinodontium taxodii and Ierpex lacteus degraded lignin selectively, and Pleurotus ostreatus degraded lignocelluloses effectively. The laccases, MnP and VP of some typical stains which played an important role in the biodegradation and bioconversion of biomass and xenobiotics were investigated. Some new ligninolytic enzymes genes and their corresponding full-length cDNA were then cloned and characterized by means of degenerate PCR, genome walking, 5- and 3-RACE and RT-PCR. The functionality of laccase, MnP and VP genes were verified by expressing these genes in the Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli successfully. The recombinant ligninolytic enzymes could decolorize different dyes and degrade alkaline lignin effectively. The regulation of laccase synthesis and laccase gene expression by some external factors were further studied. Our results suggested that the laccase production and laccase gene expression in Basidiomycetes could be significantly stimulated by some metal ions and various aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin. The regulation of laccase gene expression mainly occurred at the transcriptional level. The structure of straw was analyzed when bio-modified by basidiomycetes for biofuel production. It is found that different basidiomycetes could greatly modify the structure of lignocelluloses. By disrupting the benzene structure of lignin unit and decreasing the crystallinity of cellulose and hemicelluloses, basidiomycetes could destruct the biomass. Moreover, basidiomycetes could degrade the LCC linkages between lignin and hemicelluloses, releasing the cellulose and hemicelluloses and making the biomass more available to be treated for biorefineries. The mechanism of lignin metabolism to promote dye degradation in the co-substrate system was studied. Four major categories of white rot fungi I. lacteus related to lignin and aromatic ring compounds degrading enzyme system and its auxiliary functional gene groups including:(1) ligninolytic enzymes, (2) the metal binding and ion transporter related proteins, (3) oxidoreductases that could generate H2O2, (4) aromatic compound catabolism related enzymes were coordinately up-regulated under lignin/dye co-substrate system. Besides the lignolytic enzymes, Fenton reaction based on hydroxyl radical and iron might also play a critical role in dye and lignin degradation, which showed that the effective degradation of dye in co-substrate system was carried out by a complex network of enzymes, redox system and co-factors. From above the studies, the biomass like straw bio-degraded by basidiomycetes can be helpful for bio-conversion of biomass energy and promote the bio-degradation of xenobiotics, which provide theoretical and technical foundation for bio-degradation and bio-conversion of biomass and xenobiotics with basidiomycetes.
Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular biology
Biography: Perla Pérez-Treviño is a PhD student in Biotechnology from the Tecnologico de Monterrey (ITESM), Mexico. Since 2012 to the present she has been working as a research assistance at the Institute of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Zambrano-Hellion Hospital, School of Medicine, ITESM. She has published two papers as first author in important peer reviewed journals and two more that are in revision. Perla´s work is focused in the study of molecular and microstructural cell alterations during various chronic pathologies, and currently she is working in assessing the expression of biomarkers in 3D models of cancer cells growth and tumors.
Abstract: HER2 over expression is associated with Breast Cancer (BC) poor prognosis, due to increased metastases and angiogenesis, and decreased apoptosis. HER2 is commonly assessed by Immuno histochemistry. Technique that requires extensive sample processing to get thin fixed samples (3-5 m) that are analyzed using standard HER2 detection probes, and subjective algorithms for HER2 interpretation. Consequently, it lacks accuracy and reproducibility, and could lead to misdiagnosis.
Therefore, we developed a 3D imaging detection method of HER2 using Affibody molecules conjugated with Quantum Dots (Aff-QDs) and ratiometric analysis (RMA). Affibody anti-HER2 (AffantiHER2) and Affibody negative control (Affneg) were conjugated by the maleimide reaction with QD605 and QD545, respectively. Fixed HER2+ and HER2- BC spheroids were incubated with a mixture (1:1) of both Aff-QDs, and confocal image stacks were recorded in the z-axis. Images were processed by RMA (AffantiHER2-QD605/Affneg-QD545 fluorescence), to assess the specific HER2 signal.
We found that the non-specific accumulation for both Aff-QDs was the same within HER2- spheroids. However, the AffantiHER2-QD605 signal in HER2+ spheroids, was significantly higher (5.91 0.81 F/F0)than that of Affneg-QD545 (2.67 0.56 F/F0, p<0.05) and was optimally resolved up to 50 m depth. After RMA, non-specific signals were removed in HER2+ and HER2- spheroids, and no false HER2 signal was found. Therefore, Aff-QDs can efficiently penetrate in spheroids, used as 3D BC models, with minimal sample manipulation; after RMA, specific and objective 3D HER2 result can be obtained. The method proposed here, could reduce the typical problems associated with traditional immuno histochemistry and improve HER2 detection by 3D analysis.
Biography: Juan C. Castro, is a Biologist graduated from the National University of the Peruvian Amazon (UNAP), Iquitos-Peru. He holds a Master's and Ph.D. degrees in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, with more than 15 years of experience in teaching and scientific research in the areas of biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. Has advised several pre and post-graduate theses. Performs biochemical and molecular species of Peruvian Amazonian biodiversity. He has published more than 30 articles in national and international indexed journals, is a reviewer of African Journal of Biotechnology, BMC Genomics, Gene, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Preparatory Biochemistry and Biotechnology among others.
Abstract: Myrciaria dubia is an Amazonian fruit shrub that produces numerous bioactive phytochemicals, but is best known by its high L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content in fruits. Pronounced variation in AsA content has been observed both within and among individuals, but the genetic factors responsible for this variation are largely unknown. The goals of this research, therefore, were to assemble, characterize, and annotate the fruit transcriptome of M. dubia in order to reconstruct metabolic pathways and determine if multiple pathways contribute to AsA biosynthesis. In total 24,551,882 high-quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 70,048 unigenes (mean length = 1150 bp, N50 = 1775 bp). Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases such as TAIR, GR-protein, FB, MGI, RGD, ZFIN, SGN, WB, TIGR_CMR, and JCVI-CMR with 75.2 % of unigenes having annotations. Of the three core GO annotation categories, biological processes comprised 53.6 % of the total assigned annotations, whereas cellular components and molecular functions comprised 23.3 and 23.1 %, respectively. Based on the KEGG pathway assignment of the functionally annotated transcripts, five metabolic pathways for AsA biosynthesis were identified: animal-like pathway, myo-inositol pathway, L-glucose pathway, D-mannose/L-galactose pathway, and uronic acid pathway. All transcripts coding enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were also identified. Finally, we used the assembly to identified 6314 genic microsatellites and 23,481 high quality SNPs. Conclusions: This study describes the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome annotation of a non-model Amazonian plant that is relevant for AsA production and other bioactive phytochemicals. Genes encoding key enzymes were successfully identified and metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis of AsA, anthocyanins, and other metabolic pathways have been reconstructed. These metabolic pathways are potentially useful for biotechnological production of vitamin C and other bioactive phytochemicals in this plant species.
Water Resources and Environmental Management
Biography: Dr. Subhajit Majumder currently is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Manipal University, Jaipur, India. He received his Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani, India. His research areas include bio-based wastewater treatments (bioremediation and biosorption), nano-biotechnology in wastewater treatments and reactive extraction.
Abstract: For the last few decades, removal of single heavy metal contaminant from industrial wastewater using pure bacterial strains has received much attention. However, limited studies have been carried out on multiple metals sequestration using bacterial consortium. The present study was aimed to develop a consortium from three different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas taiwanensis; Acinetobacter guillouiae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. This consortium was used for the simultaneous sequestration of ternary metal ions (As5+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) from aqueous solution. Batch studies showed that the removal of the three metals depends on initial metal ion concentration, initial pH, temperature and inoculum volume. The bacterial strains were utilized to develop an indigenous consortium based on metal removal efficacies and positive interferences between them. Developed consortium showed better performance over individual bacterial strains for the removal of single as well as simultaneous removal of three metal ions. It was also observed that consortium had greater adaptability in ternary metal ions mixture over individual bacterial strains.
Biography: Fei Li is a 2nd year PhD research scholar from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China. Research is focused on the exploitation and utilization of white-rot fungi resource for the application of bioremediation and bio-refinery
Abstract: Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass is great interest for the development of sustainable biorefineries. Pleurotus ostreatus, a white-rot fungi, is highly capable of lignocellulose degradation. It has a rich lignocellulosic degradation gene, of which the recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) play a pivotal role in the degradation of recalcitrant saccharification, such as crystalline cellulose. But information on AA9 LPMOs from this fungus is scarce. In this study, the catalytic characterization of LPMOs from Pleurotus ostreatus were studied.
Three of the lpmo genes of Pleurotus ostreatus were obtained from cDNA and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. Products of PASC treated with LPMOs were analyzed using MALDI-ToF-MS. And the optimum temperature for the activity of these enzymes was 40°C ~ 50°C, and the optimum pH was 4 ~ 5 with the substrate of microcrystalline cellulose. Different kinds of lignin model compounds used as an external electron donor for LPMOs, hydrogen peroxide production were initially demonstrated. The three LPMOs generally exhibited similar electron donor preferences. The lignin-derived hydroquinones 2, 6-dimethoxy -1,4 -benzohydro quinone showed stronger ability as an external electron donor, beyond that ascorbic acid was used as general electron donor. Based on current knowledge, the presence of LPMOs should participate in all microbial activity of lignocellulosic biomass degradation.
Biotechnology in Agriculture
Biography: Falah Abdul-Hasan was born and brought up in Babylon, Iraq. He received his B.Sc. degree in the Plant protection from the college of Agriculture, University of Mosul in 1992. Then he completed his M.Sc. degree in Plant pathology, India in the year 2010 and he later pursued his Doctorate degree in plant pathology from the University of Baghdad.
Abstract: Forty Fusarium solani isolates obtained from root and crown rot of melon plants in Iraq .Isolates were identified using both morphological and molecular methods. Isolates. were evaluated for the pathogenicity on apparently healthy and uniform 7 days-old seedling melon plants in greenhouse.The potential production toxins ( T2 toxin ,Deoxynivalenol ) were determined by HPLC ,PCR
The results were revealed strong relationship between pathogenicity and producing toxins (T2,DON) by Fusarium solani. Diwaniyah (D6fs18) higher pathogenicity (98.12,98.67 ) ,it is producing highest rate of toxins(T2,DON) while Najaf (N10 fs28 ) isolate was showed lower pathogenicity (7323,74.12 ) but no toxin (DON.) was produced.
Biodiversity, Energy Systems and Environmental Sustainability
Biography: Faiz Ali Khan is a currently a PhD scholar at the plant tissue culture and conservation resource laboratory in the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. He pursued his M. Phil degree in the field of biotechnology from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
Abstract: Due to random exploitation from natural resources, an efficient regeneration system of medicinally important but rare plant species, Atropa acuminata for conservation was inevitable. Leaf explants were incubated on MS medium with different level of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) alone and in combination for callus induction and induced organogenesis. After 4 weeks of culture, callus induction was recorded with the highest frequency with 1.0 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) supplement. After 5 weeks of subsequent sub-culturing, optimum shoot induction frequency of 89% was achieved with 1.0 mg/l TDZ and 1.0 mg/l α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) supplement. Highest number of shoots/explant (8.2) were recorded on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA)+1.0 mg/l NAA supplement. Shoots in elongation medium was recorded 5.8 cm long in two medium i.e. 1.0 mg/l TDZ supplement and 1.0 mg/l TDZ+1.0 mg/l NAA supplement. Successful In vitro rooting was induced on MS medium with all applied level of indole butyric acid (IBA). The regenerated shoots with well-developed roots were successfully acclimatized in sterilized soil and transferred to greenhouse conditions. Furthermore higher activity for detoxifying DPPH free radical was shown by regenerated shoots in this medicinally important plant species
Abstract: The good specific mechanical properties of composite materials with a polymer matrix (PMC) provide their more specific applications in aeronautics and aerospace . However, their use is limited by poor surface properties, such as operating temperature, flammability and resistance to wear and erosion . Several attempts have been made to use thermal spraying to produce coatings on (PMC) . The thermal stability of the matrices is a challenge to develop this technique. The molten droplets coatings can degrade thermally epoxy and damage the delicate carbon fibers . In this work, a method of modifying a composite surface has been adopted which comprises introducing a mixture of a metal powder which can reduce the impact of thermal spraying particles at the moment of formation of the metal coating.
For this, we produced a composite substrate from an epoxy resin and carbon fiber taffeta . Furthermore, in order to see the influence of the charges on the properties of the top layer, we loaded a metal powder composed of copper and steel embedded in an epoxy matrix.
The samples thus obtained were characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis measuring roughness. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that thermal spraying allows the production of metallic coatings on PMC composites. The choice of the zinc has been identified as compatible with the substrate material due to its ductility and low melting temperature close to that of the polymers. The layer containing the copper particles and steel well protects the composite material CMP, the impact of hot particles, it will prevent the rupture of brittle carbon fibers.